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Because of these _indisputable_ and well-documented "archaeological anomalies" some scholars understand that the Bible's Exodus account is _not_ an eyewitness account, they have suggested that it was written in a period when no one knew such sites were not in existence or were unoccupied and I concur.That question has been asked by scholars and answered. (Protestant Exodus date) in Canaan to oppose Israel's Exodus and entry into Canaan from Egypt and _cannot_ have been written by an eye-witness whether that be Moses or someone else. The latter number came into existence no earlier than the 12th century B. The Pentateuch and its Exodus narratives use 22 letters not the 30 letters of Moses' days.We "know" Moses did _not_ write the Exodus account because it is presented in the third person format. The sites enumerated in Numbers 33:1-50 were most probably sites known to the narrator who wrote the account in the 7th/6th century B. so they most likely were in existence in his day (some may have been abandoned in his days while others were occupied but they did "exist" at least physically).So, even if one could establish a 7th-6th century B. itinerary for the Exodus it still would not be the "real" route, the real route was, paradoxically, "the way to the land of the Philistines" (Ex ):"Now when Pharaoh let the people go, God did not lead them by way of the land of the Philistines, although it was nearer; for God said, "The people may have a change of heart when they see war, and return to Egypt.So God led the people roundabout, by the way of the wilderness at the Sea of Reeds." Professor Hoffmeier (who prefers a 13th century B. Exodus) has objected to Professor Redford's proposal that the mid-16th century B. Hyksos Expulsion is being recast as the Hebrew Exodus.The best that they can do is attempt to identify a string of sites existing principally in the 7th-6th centuries B. The biblical narrative suggests Israel fears the warlike Philistines upon exiting Egypt (Ex ) so they do not take "the way to the land of the Philistines" the northern track across the Sinai paralleling the Mediteranean Sea although this is the fastest way to Canaan. Archaeologists understand the Philistines did not settle in Canaan before circa 1175 B. in the days of Pharaoh Rameses III who defeated their attempted invasion of Egypt.This means that the biblical narrator and his audience were _unaware_ that there were no Philistines for Israel to fear and thus no need to have Israel travel south to the Red Sea (gulf of Suez) and the southern Sinai (Mt.
Obviously someone else is writing about Moses and describing his activities (Cf. The Philistines are portrayed as being in Canaan in the days of Abraham (circa 2100 B. Archaeology has established that the Philistines are the Pelest of Ramesside era records and they did not settle in Canaan until circa 1175 B. Thus the Exodus account is _in error_ in having Philistines present circa 1512 B. The archaeological excavations revealed that some of the sites were in existence only in the 7th century B. so this anomaly suggests the Exodus account is no earlier. C.) "how" can one identify the route of the Exodus from the itinerary given in Numbers 33:1-50? That is to say, if there was an Exodus circa 1512/1446/1260 B. they probably did take "the way to the land of the Philistines" as the Philistines were not present to oppose them.
Hoffmeier argues that Moses being a Prince of Egypt would have been an educated man and capable of writing and composing a record of the Exodus and its itinerary.
He therefore rejects Redford's proposal as nonsense:"It is inconceivable that early Israelites were incapable of preserving their early history, in either oral or written form, from the second half of the second millennium onward...
Unfortunately for those seeking a historical Exodus, they were UNOCCUPIED precisely at the time they reportedly played a role in the events of the wandering of the children of Israel in the wilderness...
Lastly, Mac Donald, an archaeologist with extensive experience in Transjordan echos Finkelstein and Silberman's observations about the sites mentioned in the Exodus scenarios being mostly occupied in the 7th-6th centuries B. thus dating the Exodus account to this era: On the basis of textual and literary study of these texts plus archaeological evidence from biblical sites identified with confidence, we may conclude that the passages in question probably date to the end of the Iron II period.
If I am correct in believing that there was an historical Moses who was a product of the royal nursery, then he would have been trained in the Egyptian scribal tradition. Redford thinks these events derived from the Hyksos experience in Egypt -their migration, period of dominance, followed by their forced exodus. crops up which aligns with the reign of Pharaoh Ahmose I who expelled the Hyksos:"However, as Jack showed, if all the periods are added together, such as the forty years in Sinai, the lengths of the judges, and periods of peace between the judges, plus the length of David's reign, the total is 534 years. Egyptian priest and historian Manetho claimed Israel was expelled by a pharaoh called Rameses and his notion aligns somewhat with the Ramesside Iron Age I archaeological evidence found in Transjordan and Canaan.