Non sedating anti emetic
The vomiting centre is, however, used to co-ordinate the actual event of emesis, regulating the movement of smooth and striated muscle.The CTZ transmits signals to the vomiting centre when a stimuli acts upon the CTZ, causing the activation of the emetic reflex.Phenothiazine antiemetics are usually reserved for severe cases of nausea and vomiting that occur as a result of chemotherapy or radiotherapy.Drowsiness and extrapyramidal side effects (unusual movement disorders) are common side effects.The main emetic drug that is used is Ipecacuanha, which contains two substance, emetine and cephaeline, which irritate the gastrointestinal tract to cause the patient to vomit.However, migranes and indigestion are common side effects Emesis can be induced without any influence from foreign substances within the body.Many drugs can be used to counteract substances working on the CTZ, reaching the area of the brain via the blood stream.The blood-brain barrier around the CTZ is permeable, allowing drugs to act directly on it.
However, this anticholinergic property can also act as an anti-emetic, making the first-generation antihistamine drugs more effective.
Two sections of the medulla function to regulate the event of emesis, the chemoreceptor trigger zone (CTZ) and the vomiting centre.
The CTZ is located in the area postrema, on the floor of the fourth ventricle of the brain, and is sensitive to chemical stimuli present in the plasma.
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However, although the mechanism of motion sickness is not yet fully known, many drugs for motion sickness have been designed, antagonising the H1 and muscarinic receptors.